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  1. Plant Tissue [PDF]
  2. Plant Tissue Sampling [PDF]
  3. Plant Tissue Analysis [PDF]
  4. Plant Tissue [PPT]
  5. Plant Tissue [DOC]
  6. Plant Tissue Culture [DOC]

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Article About Plant Tissue

Plant Tissue Definition

Tissue : it is an intermediate substance between cell and organ.The group of cells of similar origin, structure and functions is called tissue.

Plant tissue is a term applied to the three main types of cellular structures found within plants – dermal, ground, and vascular. Each type of plant tissue has different characteristics, and serves a different function in plant growth and health.

Material Plant Tissue PDF PPT DOC [Complete]

Plant tissue is a collection of similar cells performing an organized function for the plant. Each plant tissue is specialized for a unique purpose, and can be combined with other tissues to create organs such as leaves, flowers, stems and roots. The following is a brief outline of plant tissues, and their functions within the plant.

Function of Plant Tissue

  • The xylem and phloem tissues help in transportation of material throughout the plants
  • Help provide mechanical strength to organs.
  • They help the tissues to bend easily in various parts of a plant like- leaf, stem, and branches without damaging the plant
  • They divide to produce new cells and help in the growth of the plants.
  • They help in providing the elasticity and flexibility to the organs.
  • They help in various cellular metabolisms like photosynthesis, regeneration, respiration, etc.

Three Types of Plant Tissue

Simple Plant Tissue

There are several basic forms of plant tissue, formed from mostly identical types of cells. The first is the epidermis. The epidermis in plants serves the same function as it does in animals. It is a plant tissue formed of thin and densely packed cells, meant to separate the inside of the organisms from the outside. The epidermis is often covered in a layer of waxy protection, to stop the plant from burning or drying out in the sun. The epidermis also contains guard cells, which operate small opening called stoma. These stoma control the passage of air and water through the leaves, allowing plants to move water and nutrients up from the soil.

Meristematic Tissue

Meristematic plant tissue is different than all other plant tissue, in that it is the main growth tissue of the plant. All cells originate from one meristem or another. The apical meristem is the plant tissue which drives above ground growth, and decides the direction of the plant. Root meristems dig into the soil in search of water and nutrients. Subapical meristems divide the plant and carry leaves in different directions. Intercalary meristems provide growth from the middle of the plant, to extend the leaves upward into the sunlight.

Meristematic tissues give rise to various organs and helps plants to grow. Meristematic tissues are those tissues in which the cells remain forever young and divide actively throughout the life of the plant.

Complex Plant Tissue

The complex tissues in a plant deal with moving nutrients and water to the leaves, while removing the products of photosynthesis from the leaves. Photosynthesis produces the sugar glucose. Modified and bound to other 6-carbon sugars, the substance becomes sucrose or a variety of other disaccharides. In this form it can be moved with small amounts of water and can be transported efficiently throughout the plant. The complex tissues of the plant aid in this overall effort to supply the roots with food as they supply the leaves with water and nutrients.

Plant Tissue System

There are many variants of the generalized plant cell and its parts. Similar kinds of cells are organized into structural and functional units, or tissues, which make up the plant as a whole, and new cells (and tissues) are formed at growing points of actively dividing cells. These growing points, called meristems, are located either at the stem and root tips (apical meristems), where they are responsible for the primary growth of plants, or laterally in stems and roots (lateral meristems), where they are responsible for secondary plant growth. Three tissue systems are recognized in vascular plants: dermal, vascular, and ground (or fundamental).

Dermal System

The dermal system consists of the epidermis, or outermost layer, of the plant body. It forms the skin of the plant, covering the leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. Epidermal cells vary greatly in function and structure.

Ground System

The ground, or fundamental, tissue systems of plants consist of three types of tissue. The first, called parenchyma, is found throughout the plant and is living and capable of cell division at maturity. Usually only primary walls are present, and these are uniformly thickened. The cells of parenchyma tissue carry out many specialized physiological functions—for example, photosynthesis, storage, secretion, and wound healing. They also occur in the xylem and phloem tissues.

Vascular System 

The vascular tissue system consists of two kinds of conducting tissues:
The xylem, responsible for conduction of water and dissolved mineral nutrients. The xylem consists of two types of conducting cells: tracheids and vessels. Elongated cells, with tapered ends and secondary walls, both types lack cytoplasm and are dead at maturity. The walls have pits—areas in which secondary thickening does not occur—through which water moves from cell to cell. Vessels usually are shorter and broader than tracheids, and in addition to pits they have perforation—areas of the cell wall that lack both primary and secondary thickenings and through which water and dissolved nutrients may freely pass.

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The phloem, responsible for conduction of food. The xylem also stores food and helps support the plant. The phloem, or food-conducting tissue, consists of cells that are living at maturity. The principal cells of phloem, the sieve elements, are so called because of the clusters of pores in their walls through which the protoplasts of adjoining cells are connected. Two types of sieve elements occur: sieve cells, with narrow pores in rather uniform clusters on the cell walls, and sieve-tube members, with larger pores on some walls of the cell than on others. Although the sieve elements contain cytoplasm at maturity, the nucleus and other organelles are lacking. Associated with the sieve elements are companion cells that do contain nuclei and that are responsible for manufacturing and secreting substances into the sieve elements and removing waste products from them.
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