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  1. Ecology [PDF]
  2. Elements of Ecology and Evolution [PDF]
  3. Principles of Ecology [PDF]
  4. Definition of Ecology [PPT]
  5. What is Ecology? [PPT]
  6. Ecology Definitions [DOC]
  7. Ecology & Classification [DOC]

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Article About Ecology


Ecology Definition Biology
Ecology is the scientific study of the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interaction among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and their abiotic environment. Ecologists try to understand the inner workings of natural ecosystems and the species they contain.

Material Ecology PDF PPT DOC [Complete]

Ecology is a branch of biology concerned with understanding how organisms relate with each other and their environment. This branch of biology mainly deals with the relationships between the organisms, their relationships among each other, their relationships towards the shared resources, their relationships with the space they share, and even their relationships with the non-living aspects in the environment.

Our definition is unique in that it emphasizes several things:

  • A starting focus on organisms, aggregations of organisms, or systems incorporating organisms or their by-products
  • Depending on the ecological specialty, the focus can be on different proportions of biotic or abiotic aspects of nature 
  • The relationships between organisms and the physical world can be bidirectional, although different specialties may emphasize the effect of the organisms (and systems containing them) on the physical world, or the effect of the physical world on the organisms
  • The boundary between the abiotic and the biotic aspects of ecology is blurryThe bounding of ecology by both the biological and physical sciences
  • The breadth of subject matters within ecology
  • The joint consideration of both biotic and abiotic aspects of nature
  • The disciplinary focus is on "processes", "interactions" and "relations" rather than on the physical entities per se


Ecology is the scientific study of the processes influencing the distribution and abundance of organisms, the interactions among organisms, and the interactions between organisms and the transformation and flux of energy and matter.

Ecological principles also play a major role in generating solutions to problems of applied interest, such as the use of predatory insects as agent of biological control, the dynamics of disease in human and other populations, the preservation of biodiversity in the face of anthropogenic changes, the fate of pollutants in natural and artificial ecosystems, and the effects of fossil fuel use on the global climate. As a result, undergraduate Biology majors need a thorough grounding in ecology not only to pursue graduate study in academic ecology, but also as preparation for careers in applied fields such as environmental management,ecotoxicology, environmental law, conservation biology, and ecological agriculture. The undergraduate concentration in ecology has been designed to give students the entry-level qualifications for further study in basic and applied aspects of ecology.

Types of Ecology
1. Microbial Ecology
Microbial ecology looks at the smallest fundamental levels of life, that is, the cellular level. It involves mainly the first two life kingdoms which are; Kingdom Monera and Kingdom Protista. Here, the connections are made between microbes and their relationships with each other and their environments.

2. Global Ecology (Biosphere)
The global ecology is principally important in understanding all the ecosystems affecting the entire globe. This includes all the different biomes, with considerations of aspects such as climate and other environmental geography.

3. Organism/Behavioural Ecology
This is the study of the organism at its fundamental levels and can encompass microbial ecology. In this type of ecology, the main goal is to understand the organism’s behaviours, adaptations for such behaviours, reason for those behaviours as explained through the lens of evolution, and the way all these aspects mesh together.

4. Community Ecology
Community ecology takes a look at the community, defined as all the populations that live in a given area. This includes all the different species populations. The focus here is usually on the interactions between the different species and how their numbers and sizes all mesh together and how change in one population change the dynamic of the whole community.

5. Population Ecology
Population ecology is the next rank on the ecological ladder. Population ecology focuses on the population, defined as a group of organisms of the same species living in the same area at the same time. Here, attention is given to things such as population size, its density, the structure of the population, migration patterns, and the interaction between organisms of the same population.

6. Ecosystem Ecology
Ecosystem ecology makes a unique contribution to understanding ecology by adding abiotic (non-living) factors to the items analysed, alongside the biotic (living) factors involved. This interaction therefore involves all aspects of the environment and how they interact.

Branches of Ecology

  • Population Ecology; As its name suggests, population ecology deals with the study of population structures and dynamics, rather than looking at the individual behavioral patterns of living organisms.
  • Terrestrial Ecology; Terrestrial ecology is a branch of ecology that deals with the study of land organisms and how they interact with each other and adapt to their environment. Aside from that, the diversity and distribution of different organisms in various terrestrial habitats are also being focused on.
  • Microbial Ecology;Microbial ecology focuses on the study of how communities of microorganisms establish themselves on abiotic substrates and how such organizations enable them to interact with each other.
  • Systems Ecology; Systems ecology is a branch of ecology that tackles various abiotic factors like energy budget allocation and physical processes such as carbon cycle and biogeochemical cycles.
  • Aquatic Ecology; Basically the opposite of terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology deals with the study of the ecosystems found in bodies of water, be it the marine, freshwater, or the estuarine.
  • Taxonomic Ecology; The next branch of ecology might be new to some as it incorporates two field of studies that may not appear to work often. Basically, taxonomic ecology is a new concept in this field.
  • Behavioral Ecology;The next branch of ecology, behavioral ecology, integrates the study of the interaction between survival value to the behavior of organisms and their offspring. Interestingly, it somehow related to evolutionary as it examines how an organism changes its behavior to ensure survival and perpetuation.
  • Conservation Ecology; Conservation ecology, as its name suggests, studies the management of biodiversity through conservation and restoration methods. This branch of ecology had just recently evolved to address the decreasing biodiversity and deteriorating natural resources in the planet.
  • Evolutionary Ecology; Evolutionary ecology merges the two scientific studies of evolution and ecology and focuses on the the physical and genetic changes that occurred among organisms and how such modifications were affected by ecological factors.
  • Applied Ecology; Bringing together all the concepts and principles of ecology, applied ecology aims to apply these significant knowledge, findings, and technological advances to understand real world situations and to address practical human problems.


Scope of Ecology
Ecology is the study of the interactions of living organisms with their environment. One core goal of ecology is to understand the distribution and abundance of living things in the physical environment. Attainment of this goal requires the integration of scientific disciplines inside and outside of biology, such as biochemistry, physiology, evolution, biodiversity, molecular biology, geology, and climatology. Some ecological research also applies aspects of chemistry and physics, and it frequently uses mathematical models.

Ecology Examples
Examples of ecology are simply aspects that seek to study how the various types of ecology come about. For instance, the study of humans and their relationship with the environment gives us human ecology.  Here are two basic examples to elaborate examples of ecology in details.

1. Niche construction
Niche construction is an example of ecology dealing with the study of how organisms are able to alter their environment for their benefit and also for the benefit of other living things. It is of particular interest to ecologists who desire to understand how some organisms overcome the challenges presented to them.

2. Human ecology
This aspect of ecology looks at the relationship between humans and the ecosystem as a whole. It is centred on human beings, studying their behaviour and hypothesises the evolutionary reasons why we might have taken up some traits.

Emphasis is placed on this due to the impact human beings have on the environment and it also gives us knowledge about the shortcomings of the entire human population and how to better ourselves for our own sake and that of the environment.

Importance of Ecology

  1. Enhances energy conservation
  2. Ensures proper resource allocation
  3. It helps in environmental conservation
  4. Aids in disease and pest control
  5. Promotes eco-friendliness
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