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  1. Cellular Injury, Necrosis, Apoptosis [PDF]
  2. Differences Between Necrosis and Apoptosis [PDF]
  3. Apoptosis, Necrosis and Much More² Is Oxidative Stress [PDF]
  4. Necrosis [PPT]
  5. Apoptosis , Necrosis, and Death [PPT]
  6. Necrosis [DOC]
  7. Types of Cell Necrosis [DOC]

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Article About Necrosis



Definition of Necrosis

Necrosis is caused by a lack of blood and oxygen to the tissue. It may be triggered by chemicals, cold, trauma, radiation or chronic conditions that impair blood flow. There are many types of necrosis, as it can affect many areas of the body, including bone, skin, organs and other tissues.

Necrosis

Necrosis: The death of living cells or tissues. Necrosis can be due, for example, to ischemia (lack of blood flow). From the Greek "nekros" (dead body). Necrosis is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

Tissue necrosis is an equally important prognostic marker as treat- ment response for oncologic outcomes in locally advanced rectal cancer.

The apoptosis process is a natural part of the cell's life cycle, and the body is ready to carry the dead cell materials away. In necrosis, however, the body isn't prepared to remove the dead cells, and as a result, causes an inflammatory response.

Cells need blood to live, and any interruption to blood flow results in necrosis. Injury, infection, disease, toxins, and many other factors can block blood from getting to a cell and cause unnatural death. Sometimes a dead cell releases chemicals that can affect the nearby cells, spreading necrosis to wide areas in a condition called gangrene, which is when tissue in certain areas, usually the hands and feet, dies. Again, a dead cell can't turn back into a living one, so the only cure for gangrene is to amputate the area.

Necrosis Types

There are 6 different types of necrosis:

  • Coagulative necrosis
  • Liquefactive necrosis
  • Caseous necrosis
  • Fat necrosis
  • Fibroid necrosis
  • Gangrenous necrosis

1. Coagulative necrosis

This type of necrosis occurs due to mechanical injury or loss of oxygen to any part of the body, except the brain. The injuries usually damage the digestive enzymes of the cells, so the digestion occurs by other surrounding cells.

2. Liquefactive necrosis

Our cells have enzymes that can digest themselves. In liquefactive necrosis, these digestive enzymes come into play, resulting in a liquified mass of dissolved tissue. \

3. Caseous necrosis

This type is specifically seen during tuberculosis infections, although some other fungi can also cause it. In this type, the dead tissue has a whitish, cottage cheese-like appearance. The structure has a large number of activated macrophages and lymphocytes.

4. Fat necrosis

Adipocytes are specialized cells that store energy in the form of fat. If necrosis occurs in a place that is rich in these cells, the enzymes break down the adipocytes to release free fatty acids. These then appear as white blotches on the skin.

5. Fibrinoid necrosis

This type of necrosis is specific to vascular, or blood-related damage. It involves the deposition of fibrin within our blood vessels on a microscopic level.

6. Gangrene necrosis

Any cell or tissue death in the extremities, especially the lower limbs, is known as gangrene. It presents as blackened skin, with putrefaction. This is technically not a type of necrosis, but rather a classification of necrosis found in a specific place. It could be manifest as coagulative (dry) necrosis or liquefactive (liquid) necrosis.

The type of necrosis can often be categorized based on how the cells look after death. Sometimes the entire cell loses its structure, and sometimes the outer architecture remains the same and only the inside is affected.

Necrosis Causes

Caseous necrosis is a condition of cellular death that usually occurs in the lungs. When the lung cells die, they begin to take on a crumbly, dull white appearance that resembles cheese. Although caseous necrosis most often occurs in the lungs, it can also happen in other locations of the body such as the kidneys.

The most common causes of fat necrosis are:

  • History of surgery to a particular area
  • History of radiation to a particular area of tissue
  • History of removal of breast implants
  • Physical trauma, often to the breast area in a car accident when a person is restrained by a seatbelt
  • Women who are obese and have very large breasts are more likely to have fat necrosis of the breast.

Necrosis vs Apoptosis

Apoptosis is an important part of our natural functioning and is used to maintain a healthy number of cells. This cannot be done by controlling cell division alone. Apoptosis is also used when a body structure becomes redundant, for instance, the tail of a maturing tadpole. Apoptosis plays a role in the development of certain body parts, such as the development of the human embryo; toes and fingers are formed when the cells between individual digits die by apoptosis.

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Contrastingly, we have necrosis. This is a process in which our body cells face unnatural death, or non-programmed cell death. This could occur due to a lack of oxygen to a certain part or tissue, which results in the cells dying by hypoxia, or it could be caused by an infection or harmful toxin that kills our body’s cells before their programmed death.
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