Read Also:

Material About Protein Synthesis Process PDF PPT DOC [Complete] - This time InRce.Com will file sharing learning material that you can download and read free here as the literature learning materials or work on the tasks of the teachers in the school, the professors on campus, or agencies. May you helped.

Below the file material about the Protein Synthesis Process as reference literature material/material/task/working paper/thesis/journal at the school, campus, or agencies:

How to Download: Click on the title of the file you wish to download the above > > Click Get Link > > Click the Go to Link > > completed, if you are using the HP suggestion, use the Chrome/UC Browser.

Article About Protein Synthesis Process

Protein Synthesis Definition
What is protein synthesis? Protein synthesis is a tightly regulated cellular process that affects growth, reproduction, and survival in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as nutrient availability and energy levels. A pronounced, age-related decline of the total protein synthesis rate has been observed in many organisms, including humans. The molecular mechanisms underlying this decline and their role in the aging process remain unclear.

A series of recent studies in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, have revealed a novel link between protein synthesis and aging. Remarkably, these research findings, in their totality, converge to indicate that reduction of mRNA translation prolongs life in worms. Signal transduction cascades implicated in aging, such as the insulin/insulin growth factor-1 pathway, interface with mechanisms regulating protein synthesis via a battery of key mRNA translation factors. Are the effects of these pathways on aging mediated, in part, by alterations in protein synthesis? This is an intriguing possibility in light of the latest discoveries.

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.

Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes by which individual cells build their specific proteins. Within the process are involved both DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and different in their function ribonucleic acids (RNA).

Protein Synthesis Process
Now let's look at the order of events in the synthesis of our protein from our sample mRNA:

  1. A ribosome binds to mRNA with the AUG codon in the P-site and the UUU codon in the A-site.
  2. An amino acyl-tRNA (anti-codon = UAC) with an attached methionine comes into the P-site of the ribosome
  3. An amino acyl-tRNA (anti-codon = AAA) with an attached phenylalanine comes into the A-site of the ribosome
  4. A chemical bond forms between the methionine and phenylalanine (in a protein, this covalent bond is called a peptide bond).
  5. The methionine-specific tRNA leaves the P-site and goes off to gather another methionine
  6. The ribosome shifts so that the P-site now contains the UUU codon with the attached phenyl-alanine tRNA and the next codon (ACA) now occupies the A-site.
  7. An amino acyl-tRNA (anti-codon) with an attached threonine comes into the A-site of the ribosome.
  8. A peptide bond forms between the phenylalanine and the threonine.
  9. The phenylalanine-specific tRNA leaves the P-site and goes off to find another phenylalanine.
  10. The ribosome shifts down one codon so that the stop sequence is now in the A-site. Upon encountering the stop sequence, the ribosome detaches from the mRNA and splits into its two parts, the threonine-specific tRNA releases its threonine and leaves, and the new protein floats away


Protein Synthesis Steps Simple
The synthesis of proteins takes two steps: transcription and translation. Transcription takes the information encoded in DNA and encodes it into mRNA, which heads out of the cell's nucleus and into the cytoplasm. During translation, the mRNA works with a ribosome and tRNA to synthesize proteins.

Material Protein Synthesis Process PDF PPT DOC [Complete]

The main protein synthesis steps are:

  • Initiation
  • Elongation
  • Termination


In most of the aspects, the process in eukaryotes follow the same simple protein synthesis steps as in prokaryotes. However there are specific differences that could be outlined. For example, one important difference is that in prokaryotic cells the process of translation starts before transcription is completed. This coupling is defined because prokaryotes have no nuclear membrane and thus there is no physical separation of the two processes.

Protein Synthesis Transcription
Transcription is initiated when DNA unwinds and serves as a template for the synthesis of new complementary mRNA strand.The main enzyme involved in transcription is RNA polymerase. This enzyme builds the complementary strand in 5′ to 3′ direction, adding each new nucleotide to the 3′ end of the strand. In prokaryotes, transcription is carried out by a single type of RNA polymerase enzyme, whereas in eukaryotes at least three distinct RNA polymerases are required (RNA polymerase I, II, III).

DNA transcription unit consists of both coding sequence which generates an mRNA which eventually gets translated into proteins, and regulatory sequence, which controls the synthesis of protein. The region upstream from the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5′UTR), and the region downstream from the coding sequence is called three prime untranslated region(3′UTR).Transcription is initiated when DNA unwinds and serves as a template for the synthesis of new complementary mRNA strand.The main enzyme involved in transcription is RNA polymerase. This enzyme builds the complementary strand in 5′ to 3′ direction, adding each new nucleotide to the 3′ end of the strand. In prokaryotes, transcription is carried out by a single type of RNA polymerase enzyme, whereas in eukaryotes at least three distinct RNA polymerases are required (RNA polymerase I, II, III).

DNA transcription unit consists of both coding sequence which generates an mRNA which eventually gets translated into proteins, and regulatory sequence, which controls the synthesis of protein. The region upstream from the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5′UTR), and the region downstream from the coding sequence is called three prime untranslated region(3′UTR).
Material Protein Synthesis Process PDF PPT DOC [Complete] Rating: 4.9 Diposkan Oleh: Presiden Jokowi

0 komentar untuk Material Protein Synthesis Process PDF PPT DOC [Complete]