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Article About Protein Synthesis Steps

Protein Synthesis Definition
Protein synthesis is a tightly regulated cellular process that affects growth, reproduction, and survival in response to both intrinsic and extrinsic cues, such as nutrient availability and energy levels. A pronounced, age-related decline of the total protein synthesis rate has been observed in many organisms, including humans. The molecular mechanisms underlying this decline and their role in the aging process remain unclear.

A series of recent studies in the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, have revealed a novel link between protein synthesis and aging. Remarkably, these research findings, in their totality, converge to indicate that reduction of mRNA translation prolongs life in worms. Signal transduction cascades implicated in aging, such as the insulin/insulin growth factor-1 pathway, interface with mechanisms regulating protein synthesis via a battery of key mRNA translation factors. Are the effects of these pathways on aging mediated, in part, by alterations in protein synthesis? This is an intriguing possibility in light of the latest discoveries.

Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes by which individual cells build their specific proteins. Within the process are involved both DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and different in their function ribonucleic acids (RNA).

Protein Synthesis Steps
The main protein synthesis steps are:

  • Initiation
  • Elongation
  • Termination


In most of the aspects, the process in eukaryotes follow the same simple protein synthesis steps as in prokaryotes. However there are specific differences that could be outlined. For example, one important difference is that in prokaryotic cells the process of translation starts before transcription is completed. This coupling is defined because prokaryotes have no nuclear membrane and thus there is no physical separation of the two processes.

Protein Synthesis Steps Simple
The synthesis of proteins takes two steps: transcription and translation. Transcription takes the information encoded in DNA and encodes it into mRNA, which heads out of the cell's nucleus and into the cytoplasm. During translation, the mRNA works with a ribosome and tRNA to synthesize proteins.

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Protein Synthesis Transcription
Transcription is initiated when DNA unwinds and serves as a template for the synthesis of new complementary mRNA strand.The main enzyme involved in transcription is RNA polymerase. This enzyme builds the complementary strand in 5′ to 3′ direction, adding each new nucleotide to the 3′ end of the strand. In prokaryotes, transcription is carried out by a single type of RNA polymerase enzyme, whereas in eukaryotes at least three distinct RNA polymerases are required (RNA polymerase I, II, III).

DNA transcription unit consists of both coding sequence which generates an mRNA which eventually gets translated into proteins, and regulatory sequence, which controls the synthesis of protein. The region upstream from the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5′UTR), and the region downstream from the coding sequence is called three prime untranslated region(3′UTR).Transcription is initiated when DNA unwinds and serves as a template for the synthesis of new complementary mRNA strand.The main enzyme involved in transcription is RNA polymerase. This enzyme builds the complementary strand in 5′ to 3′ direction, adding each new nucleotide to the 3′ end of the strand. In prokaryotes, transcription is carried out by a single type of RNA polymerase enzyme, whereas in eukaryotes at least three distinct RNA polymerases are required (RNA polymerase I, II, III).

DNA transcription unit consists of both coding sequence which generates an mRNA which eventually gets translated into proteins, and regulatory sequence, which controls the synthesis of protein. The region upstream from the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5′UTR), and the region downstream from the coding sequence is called three prime untranslated region(3′UTR).
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