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  2. Average Protein Synthesis Time [PDF]
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  4. DNA, RNA, and Protein Synthesis [PPT]
  5. RNA & Protein Synthesis [PPT]
  6. Protein Synthesis [DOC]
  7. Proteins and Protein Synthesis [DOC]

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Article About Protein Synthesis

Protein Synthesis Definition

Protein synthesis is one of the most fundamental biological processes by which individual cells build their specific proteins. Within the process are involved both DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and different in their function ribonucleic acids (RNA).

Material Protein Synthesis PDF PPT DOC [Complete]

Protein synthesis is the process whereby biological cells generate new proteins; it is balanced by the loss of cellular proteins via degradation or export.

Protein synthesis is accomplished through a process called translation. In translation, RNA and ribosomes work together to produce proteins.

Protein Synthesis Process

Now let's look at the order of events in the synthesis of our protein from our sample mRNA:

  1. A ribosome binds to mRNA with the AUG codon in the P-site and the UUU codon in the A-site.
  2. An amino acyl-tRNA (anti-codon = UAC) with an attached methionine comes into the P-site of the ribosome
  3. An amino acyl-tRNA (anti-codon = AAA) with an attached phenylalanine comes into the A-site of the ribosome
  4. A chemical bond forms between the methionine and phenylalanine (in a protein, this covalent bond is called a peptide bond).
  5. The methionine-specific tRNA leaves the P-site and goes off to gather another methionine
  6. The ribosome shifts so that the P-site now contains the UUU codon with the attached phenyl-alanine tRNA and the next codon (ACA) now occupies the A-site.
  7. An amino acyl-tRNA (anti-codon) with an attached threonine comes into the A-site of the ribosome.
  8. A peptide bond forms between the phenylalanine and the threonine.
  9. The phenylalanine-specific tRNA leaves the P-site and goes off to find another phenylalanine.
  10. The ribosome shifts down one codon so that the stop sequence is now in the A-site. Upon encountering the stop sequence, the ribosome detaches from the mRNA and splits into its two parts, the threonine-specific tRNA releases its threonine and leaves, and the new protein floats away

Protein Synthesis Transcription

Transcription is initiated when DNA unwinds and serves as a template for the synthesis of new complementary mRNA strand.The main enzyme involved in transcription is RNA polymerase. This enzyme builds the complementary strand in 5′ to 3′ direction, adding each new nucleotide to the 3′ end of the strand. In prokaryotes, transcription is carried out by a single type of RNA polymerase enzyme, whereas in eukaryotes at least three distinct RNA polymerases are required (RNA polymerase I, II, III).

DNA transcription unit consists of both coding sequence which generates an mRNA which eventually gets translated into proteins, and regulatory sequence, which controls the synthesis of protein. The region upstream from the coding sequence is called the five prime untranslated region (5′UTR), and the region downstream from the coding sequence is called three prime untranslated region(3′UTR).

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Protein Synthesis Steps Simple

The synthesis of proteins takes two steps: transcription and translation. Transcription takes the information encoded in DNA and encodes it into mRNA, which heads out of the cell's nucleus and into the cytoplasm. During translation, the mRNA works with a ribosome and tRNA to synthesize proteins.
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