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Cellular Network Basics: 

  • There are any types of cellular services, before developing into details focus on basics ( helps navigate the "acronym soup")
  • Cellular network is radio based technology, radio waves are electromagnetic waves that antenna propagate.
  • Most of signals are in the range of 850 MHz, 900 MHz,1800 MHz and 1900MHz frequency band.

Cell phone operating frequency range

Cellular Network:

  • Base stations transmit to and receive from mobiles at the assigned spectrum ( Multiple base stations use the same spectrum).
  • The service area of each base stations is called a cell.    
  • Each mobile terminal is typically served by the closest base stations.    
  • Handoff when terminal move.

Cellular Network Generations:

  • It is useful to think of cellular telephony in terms of generation 
      -  0G : Briefcase size mobile radio telephones
      - 1G : Analog cellular telephony.
      - 2G : Digital cellular telephony.
      - 3G : High speed digital cellular telephony.
      - 4G : IP based " anytime any where " voice data and multimedia telephony                    at faster data rate than 3G ( currently 4G is being used )

Generation of cellular network

GSM(Global System for Mobile):

  • Concurrent development in USA and Europe in the year of 1980.
  • The European system was called GSM deployed in the year of 1990.
  • In GSM technology the voice frequency range 3.1 KHz.
  • SMS (Short Message Service) was introduced first, by GSM technology.
  • GSM mainly provides IP based general packet radio service (GPRS) where data transmission rate up to 114 kbps.
  • GPRS provides " always on" internet access and MMS (Multimedia messaging Service).

Subscriber Identity Module (SIM):

  • It is small smart card.
  • SIM card
    Encryption codes is needed to identify the subscriber.
  • Subscriber's own information (telephone directory).
  • Can also be used in other systems besides GSM, e.g, some WLAN access points accept SIM based user authentication.

Base Station Subsystem(BSS):

BSS with channel


Base Station Controller(BSC):

  • Controls the channel (time slot) allocation implemented by the BTSes.
  • Manage the handovers within BSS area.

Base Transceiver System :

  • Controls several transmitters
  • Each transmitter has 8 time slots, some used for signaling, on a specific frequency.

Mobile Switching Center (MSC):

Overview of MSC
  •  An typical telephony exchange (ISDN excchabge ) which supports mobile communications 
  • Visitor Location Register(VLR) 
       - A database, part of the MSC
       - Contains the location of the active Mobile Stations.

Home Location Register(HLR):

  • Contains the subscriber identification information authentication information in Authentication Center(AuC).

Home Location Register

Equipment Identity Register(EIR):

International mobile station Equipment Identity (IMEI) codes used for trace the stolen phones.


When a mobile station enters another operators network, it can be allow to use the service of the particular network.
  • Operator to Operator agreement and contracts.
  • Sometimes it may be higher billing.

3G Overview:

  • 3G is created by Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International Telecommunications Union (ITU -T).
  • Audio and Video can be transferred through 3G network. 

3.5 G: 

  • High speed packet access(HSPA) is improved the performance of 3.5G

3.5 G Features :

  • Adaptive Modulation and Coding Schemes
  • Very fast scheduling
  • Enhanced air interface


  • LTE stands for Long-Term Evolution 
  • LTE is the next generation mobile broadband technology 
  • Data rate nearly equals to 100 Mbps
  • Optimize for AII-IP traffic
  • Based on UMTS  3G technology 

Advantages of LTE:

  • High network throughput
  • Low latency 
  • Plug and Play architecture 
  • Faster download / upload data
  • Increase the response for application
  • Multi input, multi output facility 



[Complete] MOBILE NETWORK BASICS Rating: 4.9 Diposkan Oleh: Presiden Jokowi

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